This book is about the interaction of laser radiation with various surfaces at variable parameters of radiation. As a basic principle of classification we chose the energetic or intensity level of interaction of laser radiation with the surfaces. These two characteristics of laser radiation are the most important parameters defining entire spectrum of the processes occurring on the surfaces during interaction with electromagnetic waves.
This is a first book containing a whole spectrum of the laser-surface interactions distinguished by the ranges of used laser intensity. It combines the surface response starting from extremely weak laser intensities (~1 W cm-2) up to the relativistic intensities (~1020 W cm-2 and higher). The book provides the basic information about lasers and acquaints the reader with both common applications of laser-surface interactions (laser-related printers, scanners, barcode readers, discs, material processing, military, holography, medicine, etc) and unusual uses of the processes on the surfaces under the action of lasers (art conservation, rangefinders and velocimeters, space and earth explorations, surface engineering and ablation, and others). The scientific applications of laser-surfaces interactions (surface optical nonlinearities, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, surface nanostructuring, nanoripples and clusters formation, X-ray lasers and harmonic generation from the surfaces) are discussed from the point of view of the close relations between the properties of surface and matter, which is a cornerstone of most of studies of materials.
The novelty of the approach developed in Laser - Surface Interactions is related with the interconnection of scientific studies with numerous applications of the laser-surface interactions separated in different chapters by the ranges of laser intensities. We present most recent achievements in this field. The book provides valuable information for different ranges of reader's preparedness to the laser-related topics (from unprepared readers, to students, engineers and researchers, professionals and academics).
Since the introduction of the iPad in 2010, the entire world has gone tablet crazy. While Apple pretty much created the mainstream market for these devices, Microsoft actually got there first-hybrid tablet/laptops running Windows have existed since the 90s. Unlike Apple, Microsoft doesn't generally produce their own hardware; they prefer to let dozens of manufacturers fight over standards and pricing. In fact, the Surface RT is the first computer Microsoft has ever made. The Surface RT is one part of a larger reinvention of Microsoft's core product, the Windows operating system. Windows 8, a special version of which powers the new Surface Tablet, is the most significant update that Windows has ever seen. There's a little bit of a learning curve, but we're confident that by the time you finish reading this guide, you'll be singing the praises of this unique device to anyone who'll listen. Ready? Let's jump right in!
Specialist Periodical Reports provide systematic and detailed review coverage of progress in the major areas of chemical research. Written by experts in their specialist fields the series creates a unique service for the active research chemist, supplying regular critical in-depth accounts of progress in particular areas of chemistry.
Rather than focusing on the diet, Beyond Diet is a program that seeks to help the user change the lifestyle into a healthier, more fulfilling life. Rather than describing how and why one needs to go on diet, the program helps one change his or her thinking and eating habits. The program seeks to do what many diet plans have so miserably failed to do, help everybody lose weight and live healthily. The plan therefore is like a manual that clarifies what true nutrition is and what foods should and should not be eaten so as to achieve an ideal weight and to avoid the many lifestyle diseases that are related to bad eating habits.
This series of books, which is published at the rate of about one per year, addresses fundamental problems in materials science. The contents cover a broad range of topics from small clusters of atoms to engineering materials and involve chemistry, physics, and engineering, with length scales ranging from Angstroms up to millimeters. The emphasis is on basic science rather than on applications. Each book focuses on a single area of current interest and brings together leading experts to give an up-to-date discussion of their work and the work of others. Each article contains enough references that the interested reader can access the relevant literature. Thanks are given to the Center for Fundamental Materials Research at Michigan State University for supporting this series. M. F. Thorpe, Series Editor E-mail: thorpe@pa. msu. edu v PREFACE th th During the period 4 -8 August 1996, a conference with the same title as this book was held in Traverse City, Michigan. That conference was organized as a sequel to an interesting and successful WEM workshop in a similar area run by Profs. Hans Bonzel and Bill Mullins in May 1995. This book contains papers presented at the Traverse City conference. The book focuses on: atomic processes, step structure and dynamics; and their effect on surface and interface structures and on the relaxation kinetics of larger leng- scale nonequilibrium morphologies.
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